A history of CDD episodes dramatically increased the likelihood of further recurrences. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients treated with S boulardii and standard antibiotics had a significantly lower relative risk (RR) of CDD recurrence (RR, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.97) compared with placebo and standard antibiotics. The efficacy of S boulardii was significant (recurrence rate 34.6%, compared with 64.7% on placebo; P=.04) in patients with recurrent CDD, but not in patients with initial CDD (recurrence rate 19.3% compared with 24.2% on placebo; P=.86). There were no serious adverse reactions associated with S boulardii.
Abstract: It is hypothesized that the depletion of microbial members responsible for converting primary bile acids into secondary bile acids reduces resistance to Clostridium difficile colonization. To date, inhibition of C. difficile growth by secondary bile acids has only been shown in vitro. Using targeted bile acid metabolomics, we sought to define the physiologically relevant concentrations of primary and secondary bile acids present in the murine small and large intestinal tracts and how these impact C. difficile dynamics. We treated mice with a variety of antibiotics to create distinct microbial and metabolic (bile acid) environments and directly tested their ability to support or inhibit C. difficile spore germination and outgrowth ex vivo. Susceptibility to C. difficile in the large intestine was observed only after specific broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment (cefoperazone, clindamycin, and vancomycin) and was accompanied by a significant loss of secondary bile acids (deoxycholate, lithocholate, ursodeoxycholate, hyodeoxycholate, and ω-muricholate). These changes were correlated to the loss of specific microbiota community members, the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. Additionally, physiological concentrations of secondary bile acids present during C. difficile resistance were able to inhibit spore germination and outgrowth in vitro. Interestingly, we observed that C. difficile spore germination and outgrowth were supported constantly in murine small intestinal content regardless of antibiotic perturbation, suggesting that targeting growth of C. difficile will prove most important for future therapeutics and that antibiotic-related changes are organ specific. Understanding how the gut microbiota regulates bile acids throughout the intestine will aid the development of future therapies for C. difficile infection and other metabolically relevant disorders such as obesity and diabetes.
Conclusion: Among adults with recurrent or refractory CDI, the use of frozen compared with fresh FMT did not result in worse proportion of clinical resolution of diarrhea. Given the potential advantages of providing frozen FMT, its use is a reasonable option in this setting.
So at first glance frozen fecal transplants seem effective for this use case.